oxidation of refractory minerals

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  • Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral ,

    Bioleaching has emerged as a green technology with promising applications in mining industries in the context of recovery of precious metals from mineral or The authors synthesize the current knowledge available in the bioleaching of gold (Au) from ores by bringing together historical developments and recent endeavors In addition, the role of the microbial community in the bio-oxidation of ....

  • Mineralogical controls on the bacterial oxidation of ,

    The distribution of refractory gold in the sulphide minerals can be correlated with the presence of compositional zones and structural deviations These same mineralogical features also control the sites and rates of bacterial oxidation Thus refractory gold ,...

  • Supergene Oxidation of Copper Deposits: Zoning and ,

    Pyrite is a relatively refractory mineral in the replacement sequence; marcasite oxidizes more quickly than pyrite (Mason and Berry, 1968), and pyrrhotite oxidation is as much as two orders of magnitude faster than oxidation of pyrite (Nicholson and Scharer, 1994) Laboratory observations of Fe sulfide oxidation are corroborated by the para-...

  • Gold extraction - Wikipedia

    These refractory ores require pre-treatment in order for cyanidation to be effective in recovery of the gold A refractory ore generally contains sulfide minerals, organic carbon, or both Sulfide minerals are impermeable minerals that occlude gold particles, making it difficult for the leach solution to form a complex with the gold...

  • Effect of Pretreatment of Sulfide Refractory Concentrate ,

    For extraction of gold from refractory ores or concen- trate, in which gold is surrounded or covered by iron sul- fide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite, mineral oxidative pretreatment is essential to oxidize sulfides and to expose gold to the leaching solution Pyrometallurgi- cal oxidation by roasting is under environmental restric-...

  • oxidation of refractory minerals - estiarestaurantau

    OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND oxidation of arsenopyrite with air or oxygen has shown that the initial rate of arsenopyrite oxidation is proportional to the concentration of dissolved oxygen A reaction mechanism for the oxidation of arsenopyrite has been proposed, which involves an anodic oxidation of the mineral involving hydroxyl ions ,...

  • Processing of Arsenopyritic Gold Concentrates by Partial ,

    Gold is commonly liberated from sulfide minerals by chemical and biological oxidation Although these technologies are successful, they are costly and produce acidic waste streams Removal of mineral-sulfur to overcome the mineralogical barrier could also be done by bioreduction, producing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) To make the sulfur within these minerals available for bioreduction, the use of ....

  • OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND ,

    OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND SIMULTANEOUS DISSOLUTION OF GOLD IN AERATED ALKALINE SOLUTIONS By Suchun Zhang B Eng (Appl Chem), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China This thesis is presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Murdoch University Western Australia March 2004...

  • Microbial oxidation of gold ores and gold bioleaching ,

    This paper reviews recent progress in the use of microorganisms tooxidize the sulfidic matrix in refractory gold ores (bio-oxidation) and to solubilize elemental gold (bioleaching) Arsenopyrite oxidation, , Acidophilic bacteria and their activity in mineral sulfide oxidation In ...

  • TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING OF REFRACTORY GOLD ,

    Gold, atmospheric oxidation, refractory concentrate, leaching INTRODUCTION The considerable part of the world Au-bearing reserves is present by refractory ores with finely disseminated gold Gold in such ores is often associated with sulphide minerals and locked in so called...

  • Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral ,

    Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for Gold Extraction: A Review Article (PDF Available) in Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 45(15) October 2014 ....

  • Autoclave Technology - Hatch

    Solutions Every autoclave and preleach circuit is a custom design, based on the experience and expertise of the design team With the right innovative and proprietary equipment designs, your pressure-oxidation needs can be effectively met...

  • Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate and ,

    Pressure oxidation of the refractory sulfide/carbonaceous ores has gained world-wide acceptance Compared with roasting, pressure oxidation yields higher gold extractions from ores or concentrates and enables better handling of environmentally sensitive impuriti Normally, gold is extracted from neutralized autoclave leach residue by cyanidation...

  • US5851499A - Method for pressure oxidizing gold-bearing ,

    Provided is a method for treating refractory gold-bearing ores that have both sulfide material with which the gold is associated and from which the gold is difficult to separate and having organic carbonaceous material having an affinity for at least one of gold and a gold complex The mineral material is pressure oxidized in the presence of a halogen-containing material in a manner to reduce ....

  • REFRACTORY GOLD - PanTerra Gold Limited

    Albion Oxidation Process The Company is focussed on the utilisation of the Albion Oxidation Process which was developed in Australia and is patented by a subsidiary of global mining group, Glencore PLC The Albion Process is an atmospheric leaching process used to oxidise refractory gold sulphide mineral ,...

  • Valves for gold autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) -

    Autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) is an effective pre-treatment option when extracting gold from refractory ore bodies, such as pyrite and arsenopyrite While gold processing plants are the most common utilizers of POX technology, the process can also be ,...

  • Ultra Fine Grinding - A Practical Alternative to Oxidative ,

    Ultra Fine Grinding - A Practical Alternative to Oxidative Treatment of Refractory Gold Ores S Ellis Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines Kalgoorlie, WA Abstract Since early 2001, Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines (KCGM) has successfully operated an ultra fine grinding (UFG) circuit to supplement its roaster capacity for the...

  • Developments in the pretreatment of refractory gold ,

    processing refractory gold ores, especially development in the pretreatment of refractory gold minerals by nitric ac These processes include the high-pressure and the atmospheric-pressure oxidation methods High-pressure oxidation processes are difficult ,...

  • Pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory gold ,

    Pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory gold concentrate Article in Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing 49(1):101-109 January 2013 with 194 Reads How we measure 'reads'...

  • Supergene Oxidation of Copper Deposits: Zoning and ,

    Pyrite is a relatively refractory mineral in the replacement sequence; marcasite oxidizes more quickly than pyrite (Mason and Berry, 1968), and pyrrhotite oxidation is as much as two orders of magnitude faster than oxidation of pyrite (Nicholson and Scharer, 1994) Laboratory observations of Fe sulfide oxidation are corroborated by the para-...

  • Oxidation of refractory metals in air and low pressure ,

    1 Introduction The oxidation behavior of refractory metals has been the subject of numerous past studies and reviews , , , , , , , , , , In air at pressures near 2100 Pa (1 atm), scale formation occurs resulting in negligible oxidation rates below 200°C and slow parabolic rates at ,...

  • Pre concentration and pressure oxidation of Porgera ,

    Acid pressure oxidation has been demonstrated to be the only commercially proven process capable of achieving the required level of pyrite oxidation Gangue mineralization dictates pre concentration of the sulphides to limit the acid consuming capacity and carbon dioxide generation during oxidation...

  • Maelgwyn Mineral Services Africa

    Maelgwyn Mineral Services Africa (MMSA) is a privately owned limited company registered in South Africa The company is an established world leader in the development and implementation of tailor-made innovative cost effective mineral processing technologies ,...

  • Solutions for the treatment of wastewater with refractory COD

    Oct 08, 2019· The big difference is in the type of waste produced: in oxidation, they are mineral type residues from the catalysts used for the reaction; while, in evaporation, the residues are composed of all the concentrated effluent contaminants until the solid waste limit is reached, including the refractory ,...

  • Maelgwyn Mineral Services Africa

    Maelgwyn Mineral Services Africa (MMSA) is a privately owned limited company registered in South Africa The company is an established world leader in the development and implementation of tailor-made innovative cost effective mineral processing technologies ,...

  • Bio-oxidation of refractory gold ores containing stibnite ,

    In the gold industry, it competes with roasting and pressure oxidation in the treatment of refractory gold-sulphide concentrates (Mahajan et al, 2017) Refractory gold ores are those which yield less than 80% metal extraction during direct cyanidation (Ciminelli, 2005)...

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF PYRITE-ARSENOPYRITE ,

    Pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory gold concentrate 103 Autoclave oxidation tests were conducted in Büchi ecoclave model 075 titanium autoclave The total volume of the autoclave vessel was about 11 dm3 and it was equipped with magnetic agitation unit, gas inlet and outlet, and sampling system with...

  • Gold mineral processing - Hatch Ltd

    Refractory gold ore pretreatment Treatment of refractory gold ore (whole ore and flotation concentrates) has become more prominent since the 1980s, with many gold discoveries often including ores that are wholly or partially refractory Refractory pre-treatment processes include pressure oxidation, biological oxidation and various forms of ....

  • REFRACTORY GOLD - PanTerra Gold Limited

    Albion Oxidation Process The Company is focussed on the utilisation of the Albion Oxidation Process which was developed in Australia and is patented by a subsidiary of global mining group, Glencore PLC The Albion Process is an atmospheric leaching process used to oxidise refractory gold sulphide mineral ,...

  • Effect of Pretreatment of Sulfide Refractory Concentrate ,

    The majority of the refractory gold and silver occurs in occlusion in sulphides, then precious metal dissolution is possible by first oxidizing auriferous sulfide concentrate using sodium hypochlorite-sodium-hydroxide solution followed of pressure cyanidation of the oxidized concentrate, for the extraction of precious metals This process was conducted and evaluated under cyanide and oxygen ....